In The Name of Allaah, The Most Merciful, The Bestower of Mercy.

Imaam Ibnul Qayyim [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “The basis of Banee Adam’s misguidance is as a result of General Terms and Ambiguous Meanings [i.e. terms and meanings which can either be utilised for truth or falsehood when not explained in detail and distinguished], especially if they come in contact with a confused mind, then how about when desires and misguided enthusiasm is added to that? Therefore, ask the One Who keeps the hearts steadfast [i.e. Allaah] to keep your heart firm upon His Religion and not allow you to fall into this darkness”. (1)

The basis of a person’s Islam is to testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah and that Muhammad [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] is the Messenger of Allaah, to believe in Allaah, declare that Allaah is One without partner, obey Allaah’s commands, keep away from what Allaah has forbidden and single out Allaah in worship. And safeguarding this path (necessitates) the prohibition of every expression (term or word) that contains Shirk Billaah [i.e. ascribing partners to Allaah] or Kufr [disbelief], or will lead to one of the two. (2) In the Qur’aan, there are many words that are utilised to rebut the words (or terms) that are in opposition to the call of the Messengers, the revelation that was revealed to them and the truth they brought. (3)

One of the general fundamental principles (in Islam) is to know that words [terms and expressions] are two types: the words that are mentioned in the Qur’aan and (authentic) Sunnah, therefore, it is obligated on every believer to affirm them – affirm what Allaah and His Messenger have affirmed, and negate what Allaah and His Messenger have negated. The words affirmed by Allaah is truth and the ones Allaah negated are (negated) in truth, because indeed Allaah speaks the truth and guides to the straight path. The words of the Sharee’ah are sanctified, and it is from perfection in knowledge that one seeks after the (sound meanings) which the Messenger intended by them, in order to affirm what he affirmed and negate the meanings he negated, because indeed it is obligated on us to believe and bear witness to everything he has stated and follow him in everything he has commanded. As for the words that are neither found in the Qur’am and (authentic) Sunnah, nor did the pious predecessors hold a consensus regarding whether they are negated or affirmed, it is not incumbent on anyone to agree with the one who negates or affirms them until its intended meaning is explained. So, if its intended meaning agrees with the (revelation, commands, prohibitions etc) conveyed by the Messenger, it is affirmed; but if its intended meaning is in opposition to the (revelation, commands, prohibitions etc) conveyed by the Messenger, it is rejected. (4)

 

The Middle Path

Al-Wasatiyyah – [The Middle Path]

It is widely known amongst some of the people that ٱلۡوُسۡطَ is only that which occupies the middle position between two things, and they do not take note of the other meaning of this term, as mentioned in the Magnificent Qur’aan and the [authentic] Prophetic Sunnah. [ٱلۡوُسۡطَ ] in the Islamic legislation is that which is ‘Superior.’ [Allaah (The Most High)] said: [حَـٰفِظُواْ عَلَى ٱلصَّلَوَٲتِ وَٱلصَّلَوٰةِ ٱلۡوُسۡطَىٰ – Guard strictly (five obligatory) As-Salawaat (the prayers) especially the Salatul Wustaa (the Asr prayer)]’’. [Surah Al-Baqarah. Aayah 238] [ٱلۡوُسۡطَىٰ]- Meaning: The best, more excellent etc. And Allaah (The Most High) said: [مِنۡ أَوۡسَطِ مَا تُطۡعِمُونَ أَهۡلِيكُمۡ (On the scale) of the average of that which you feed your own families].’’ [Surah Al-Maa’idah. Aayah 89] [مِنۡ أَوۡسَطِ ] – Meaning: The best and most just. And Allaah (The Most High) said: [وَكَذَٲلِكَ جَعَلۡنَـٰكُمۡ أُمَّةً۬ وَسَطً۬ا – Thus We have made you أُمَّةً۬ وَسَطً۬ا]- Meaning: The best and most upright Ummah. The intent behind all this is to understand that [الوسطية] in the context of the Religion is that which is ‘best’ and the ‘Justice of the Religion’, [and that is] to follow that which Allaah [The Mighty and Majestic] has commanded and keep away from that which He has forbidden. As for the explanation of [الوسطية] in the religious context with a meaning other than this meaning, then it is [something founded upon a foundation] ready to crumble – a mirage which the thirsty one considers water [i.e. an illusion]. [An Excerpt from Al Haqeeqatus Shar-iyyah Fee Tafseeril Qur’aanil Adheem Was-Sunnatin Nabawiyyati page: 186]

 

Islamic Idea or Islamic Thought

Islam is not a set of ideas [or thoughts], rather it is a divine revelation sent down – by the Lord of universe – in the Magnificent Qur’aan and the [authentic] Sunnah of the noble Messenger [sallal laahu alayhi wasallam] – the Messenger who never speaks based on his desires, rather [إِنۡ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحۡىٌ۬ يُوحَىٰ – It [i.e. the Qur’aan and the authentic Sunnah conveyed by the Messenger is nothing else but a revelation that is inspired]. As for an idea [or thought], it can be [rejected, disapproved etc] and debated [or presented for discussion], and it may be correct or incorrect. Therefore, it is not permissible to associate Islam with the term ‘Idea [or thought] because it [idea or thought] is something specifically attributed to the creation [i.e. humankind and Jinn], because an idea [or a thought] can either be correct or wrong. As for the Sharee’ah [i.e. the sound divine law, creed, acts of worship conveyed by the final Messenger from the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah], it is infallible. Likewise, it is not to be said, “Islamic idea [or thought], because the scholar who has reached the level of Ijtihaad is restricted by the pure Sharee’ah, so he is not allowed to contemplate [outside the confines of the sound divine revelation] and then legislate; rather he searches and follows the legislated Islamic path of [sound] Ijtihaad in order to derive rulings. Yes, in this era of ours the term ‘Islamic thinker’ is used and what is intended by it is a person who is able to derive [sound rulings] and spread the virtues of Islaam, therefore in this case one is excused for utilising such a term; however it is better to avoid it. (5)

Islamic Philosopher

Imaam Ahmad [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “I am neither a person of philosophical rhetoric nor do I recognize philosophical rhetoric in anything. [I only recognize] that which is found in the Book of Allaah or in the Sunnah of His Messenger”. (6)

The Imaam also said, “Do not sit with ahlul kalaam [people of philosophical rhetoric] even if they defend the Sunnah”. (7)

Al-Haafidh Ibn Abdul Barr [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “The people upon the correct understanding of the religion and those who cling to the [authentic] narrations of the [Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and that of the pious predecessors] in all the regions are agreed that the people of philosophical rhetoric are people of Bidah and deviation. [All the scholars of the authentic Sunnah] do not consider them to be from those who have been given sound understanding in the religion; rather the scholars are those who adhere to the [authentic] narrations of the [Prophet] and that of the pious predecessors] and they have been given sound understanding in that”. (8)

Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said, “There are no philosophers upon right guidance”. (9) He also said, “Philosophy is like the flesh of a camel at the top of a mountain; it is not easy to climb the mountain nor is the flesh good enough to justify climbing, nor is the path leading to it easy to follow”. “Islam does not have philosophers”. (10)

Al-Allaamah Muhammad Amaan Al-Jaami [may Allaah have mercy upon him] said about the term Islamic Philosopher, “This term is blindly utilised, therefore do not be deceived by it. If you hear the term Islamic Philosopher, then know that there is no such thing as Islamic Philosopher. The well-known Raazi [rahimahullaah] was a doctor, but all of them [i.e. him and those like him] were not saved from Philosophy. However, he is not regarded to be from the senior Philosophers, rather he is regarded to be from the scholars of Ilmul Kalaam [i.e. those who sought to establish the Islamic creed based on logical and intellectual arguments and not simply restricting themselves to the Qur’aan, the authentic Sunnah and the understanding of the companions] and regreted following this path at the end of his life. And even though his repentance is not explicit, however he was from those who expressed regret and regret is a type of repentance”. (11)

 

Such and Such Individual Died Peacefully

This above is uttered by adherents of all religions – Muslims, Jews, Christians, Hindus, Budhists, Sikhs etc. Firstly, with regards to Muslims who have passed away, Shaikh Abu Khadeejah [may Allaah preserve him] quoted Imaam Abu Muhammad Al-Hasan Bin Alee Bin Khalaf al-Barbahaaree (died 329H,rahimahullaah) who stated in Sharhus-Sunnah (point 33): “And one does not bear witness for anyone [that he is from the people of Paradise or Hell] due to a good or bad deed, for you do not know what his final deed will be before his death. So hope for him the mercy of Allaah and fear for him [due to his sins]. You do not know what has been destined for him at the time of death from feelings of regret before Allaah, and what Allaah has ordained for him at that time if he was to die upon Islaam. So hope for him Allaah’s Mercy and fear for him due to his sins. And there is no sin except that there is for the servant repentance from it”. [see full explanation here: https://abukhadeejah.com/shaikh-al-fawzaan-comments-on-imaam-al-barbahaaree-one-does-not-bear-witness-for-anyone-that-he-is-from-the-people-of-paradise-or-hell/

Secondly, as for anyone who dies upon other than Islam, then indeed we say what our Lord [Allaah] has stated in the Qur’aan and what His Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] has stated in the Sunnah.

Allaah [The Exalted] stated:

وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذْ يَتَوَفَّى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا الْمَلائِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَارَهُمْ وَذُوقُوا عَذَابَ الْحَرِيقِ ذَلِكَ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ لَيْسَ بِظَلامٍ لِلْعَبِيدِ

And if you could see when the angels take away the souls of those who disbelieve (at death), they smite their faces and their backs, (saying): “Taste the punishment of the blazing Fire. This is because of that which your hands had forwarded. And verily, Allah is not unjust to His slaves.” [Surah Al-Anfaal. Aayaat 50-51]

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ ارْتَدُّوا عَلَى أَدْبَارِهِمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْهُدَى الشَّيْطَانُ سَوَّلَ لَهُمْ وَأَمْلَى لَهُمْ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا لِلَّذِينَ كَرِهُوا مَا نزلَ اللَّهُ سَنُطِيعُكُمْ فِي بَعْضِ الأمْرِ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِسْرَارَهُمْ فَكَيْفَ إِذَا تَوَفَّتْهُمُ الْمَلائِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَارَهُمْ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمُ اتَّبَعُوا مَا أَسْخَطَ اللَّهَ وَكَرِهُوا رِضْوَانَهُ فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالَهُمْ

Verily, those who have turned back (have apostated) as disbelievers after the guidance has been manifested to them, Shaitan (Satan) has beautified for them (their false hopes), and (Allah) prolonged their term (age). This is because they said to those who hate what Allah has sent down: “We will obey you in part of the matter,” but Allah knows their secrets. Then how (will it be) when the angels will take their souls at death, smiting their faces and their backs? That is because they followed that which angered Allah, and hated that which pleased Him. So He made their deeds fruitless. [Surah Muhammad. Aayaat 25-28]

[وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذِ الظَّالِمُونَ فِي غَمَرَاتِ الْمَوْتِ وَالْمَلائِكَةُ بَاسِطُوا أَيْدِيهِمْ أَخْرِجُوا أَنْفُسَكُمُ – And if you could but see when the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.) are in the agonies of death, while the angels are stretching forth their hands (saying): “Deliver your souls!] [Surah Al-An’aam. Aayah 93]

فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَوْ كَذَّبَ بِآيَاتِهِ أُولَئِكَ يَنَالُهُمْ نَصِيبُهُمْ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ حَتَّى إِذَا جَاءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُنَا يَتَوَفَّوْنَهُمْ قَالُوا أَيْنَ مَا كُنْتُمْ تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ قَالُوا ضَلُّوا عَنَّا وَشَهِدُوا عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا كَافِرِينَ

Who is more unjust than one who invents a lie against Allah or rejects His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.)? For such their appointed portion (good things of this worldly life and their period of stay therein) will reach them from the Book (of Decrees) until, when Our Messengers (the angel of death and his assistants) come to them to take their souls, they (the angels) will say: “Where are those whom you used to invoke and worship besides Allah,” they will reply, “They have vanished and deserted us.” And they will bear witness against themselves, that they were disbelievers. [Surah Al-A’raaf. Aayah 37]

لَّذِينَ تَتَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ فَأَلْقَوُا السَّلَمَ مَا كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ مِنْ سُوءٍ بَلَى إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ فَادْخُلُوا أَبْوَابَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا فَلَبِئْسَ مَثْوَى الْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ

Those whose lives the angels take while they are doing wrong to themselves (by disbelief and by associating partners in worship with Allah and by committing all kinds of crimes and evil deeds).” Then, they will make (false) submission (saying): “We used not to do any evil.” (The angels will reply): “Yes! Truly, Allah is All-Knower of what you used to do. So enter the gates of Hell, to abide therein , and indeed, what an evil abode will be for the arrogant.” [Surah An-Nahl. Aayaat 28-29]

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَاسْتَكْبَرُوا عَنْهَا لَا تُفَتَّحُ لَهُمْ أَبْوَابُ السَّمَاءِ وَلَا يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ حَتَّىٰ يَلِجَ الْجَمَلُ فِي سَمِّ الْخِيَاطِ ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُجْرِمِينَ

Verily, those who belie Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and treat them with arrogance, for them the gates of heaven will not be opened, and they will not enter Paradise until the camel goes through the eye of the needle (which is impossible). Thus do We recompense the Mujrimun (criminals, polytheists, sinners, etc.). [Surah Al-A’raaf. Aayah 40]

[وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَلِقَاءِ الْآخِرَةِ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ ۚ هَلْ يُجْزَوْنَ إِلَّا مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ- Those who deny Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and the Meeting in the Hereafter (Day of Resurrection,), vain are their deeds. Do they expect to be rewarded with anything except what they used to do?] [Surah Al-A’raaf. Aayah 47]

[وَلَقَدْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ وَإِلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكَ لَئِنْ أَشْرَكْتَ لَيَحْبَطَنَّ عَمَلُكَ وَلَتَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ – And indeed it has been revealed to you (O Muhammad ), as it was to those (Allah’s Messengers) before you: “If you join others in worship with Allah, (then) surely (all) your deeds will be in vain, and you will certainly be among the losers.”] [Surah Az-Zumar. Aayah 65]

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَن تُغْنِيَ عَنْهُمْ أَمْوَالُهُمْ وَلَا أَوْلَادُهُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئًا ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمْ وَقُودُ النَّارِ – erily, those who disbelieve, neither their properties nor their offspring will avail them whatsoever against Allah; and it is they who will be fuel of the Fire]. [Surah Aal Imran. Aayah 10]

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَمَاتُوا وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ فَلَن يُقْبَلَ مِنْ أَحَدِهِم مِّلْءُ الْأَرْضِ ذَهَبًا وَلَوِ افْتَدَىٰ بِهِ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ وَمَا لَهُم مِّن نَّاصِرِينَ-Verily, those who disbelieved, and died while they were disbelievers, the (whole) earth full of gold will not be accepted from anyone of them even if they offered it as a ransom. For them is a painful torment and they will have no helpers]. [Surah Aal Imran. Aayah 91]

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَن تُغْنِيَ عَنْهُمْ أَمْوَالُهُمْ وَلَا أَوْلَادُهُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئًا ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۚ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ – Surely, those who reject Faith (disbelieve in Muhammad as being Allah’s Prophet and in all that which he has brought from Allah), neither their properties, nor their offspring will avail them aught against Allah. They are the dwellers of the Fire, therein they will abide]. [Surah Aal Imran. Aayah 116]

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَىٰ إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا – Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with him in worship (i.e. regarding the one who died upon this state), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases, and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin]. [Surah An-Nisaa. Aayah 48]

[وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالْإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ – And whosoever disbelieves in the Oneness of Allah and in all the other Articles of Faith [i.e. His (Allah’s), Angels, His Holy Books, His Messengers (including disbelieving in the final Messenger), the Day of Resurrection and Al-Qadar (Divine Preordainments), then fruitless is his work, and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers]. [Surah Al-Maa’idah Aayah 5]

وَإِذۡ قَالَ إِبۡرَٲهِـۧمُ رَبِّ ٱجۡعَلۡ هَـٰذَا بَلَدًا ءَامِنً۬ا وَٱرۡزُقۡ أَهۡلَهُ ۥ مِنَ ٱلثَّمَرَٲتِ مَنۡ ءَامَنَ مِنۡہُم بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِ‌ۖ قَالَ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَأُمَتِّعُهُ ۥ قَلِيلاً۬ ثُمَّ أَضۡطَرُّهُ ۥۤ إِلَىٰ عَذَابِ ٱلنَّارِ‌ۖ وَبِئۡسَ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ

And (remember) when Ibrahim (Abraham) said, “My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.” He (Allah) answered: “As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!” [Surah Al-Baqarah. Aayah 126]

Meaning, when Ibraaheem supplicated for this house (i.e. the Ka’bah) and its surrounding areas that Allah make it a city of security and provide its inhabitants with various types of fruits; he then restricted his supplication to the believers out of showing good manners in the presence of Allaah, because the first part of his supplication was unrestricted (when he ask for all his children) and thus the response came as a restriction. So, he restricted his supplication for provision to the believers, even though Allaah’s Provision reaches both believers and disbelievers, the disobedient person and the obedient person. Allaah said: [وَمَن كَفَرَ – As for him who disbelieves]- Meaning, I will bestow on all of them- both Muslims and disbelievers. The Muslim utilises this provision to worship Allaah and then proceed towards the bliss of paradise, but as for the disbeliever, he enjoys himself for a short period (in the life of this world), [ثُمَّ أَضۡطَرُّهُ Û¥Û¤ إِلَىٰ عَذَابِ ٱلنَّارِ‌ۖ وَبِئۡسَ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ – then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!] [Tafseer As-Sadi]

Allaah [The Exalted] said: [وَقُلِ ٱلۡحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكُمۡ‌ۖ فَمَن شَآءَ فَلۡيُؤۡمِن وَمَن شَآءَ فَلۡيَكۡفُرۡ‌ۚ – And say: “The truth is from your Lord.” Then whosoever wills, let him believe, and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve].

Meaning – O Muhammad! Say to the people: This is the truth from your Lord and certainly He has clearly explained the difference between guidance and misguidance, distinguished between the path of upright conduct and deviation, the traits of those who are blessed and the traits of those who are wretched have been distinguished based on that which Allah has explained through the speech of His Messenger. Therefore, after it has been manifested and made clear, and there remains no ambiguity, then [فَمَن شَآءَ فَلۡيُؤۡمِن وَمَن شَآءَ فَلۡيَكۡفُرۡ‌ۚ – Then whosoever wills, let him believe, and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve] – Meaning, nothing remains except to follow one of the two paths based on whether a person is blessed with guidance or not. Indeed, Allah granted a person free will by way of which he can choose between faith and disbelief, and between good and evil; so whoever believes then indeed he has been blessed with what is correct and whoever disbelieves then indeed the proofs have been established against him. There is no compulsion as Allaah stated in another verse:

لَآ إِكۡرَاهَ فِى ٱلدِّينِ‌ۖ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ ٱلرُّشۡدُ مِنَ ٱلۡغَىِّ‌ۚ فَمَن يَكۡفُرۡ بِٱلطَّـٰغُوتِ وَيُؤۡمِنۢ بِٱللَّهِ فَقَدِ ٱسۡتَمۡسَكَ بِٱلۡعُرۡوَةِ ٱلۡوُثۡقَىٰ لَا ٱنفِصَامَ لَهَا‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower. [Surah Al-Baqarah. Aayah 256]

And regarding Allaah’s statement, [فَمَن شَآءَ فَلۡيُؤۡمِن وَمَن شَآءَ فَلۡيَكۡفُرۡ‌ۚ – Then whosoever wills, let him believe, and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve], this does not mean that one is given permission in both affairs (i.e. belief and disbelief), but rather the statement is a threat and warning to those who choose disbelief after the affair has been explained thoroughly. Then Allaah mentions the final abode of both groups, saying:

إِنَّآ أَعۡتَدۡنَا لِلظَّـٰلِمِينَ نَارًا أَحَاطَ بِہِمۡ سُرَادِقُهَا‌ۚ وَإِن يَسۡتَغِيثُواْ يُغَاثُواْ بِمَآءٍ۬ كَٱلۡمُهۡلِ يَشۡوِى ٱلۡوُجُوهَ‌ۚ بِئۡسَ ٱلشَّرَابُ وَسَآءَتۡ مُرۡتَفَقًا
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ إِنَّا لَا نُضِيعُ أَجۡرَ مَنۡ أَحۡسَنَ عَمَلاً
أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ لَهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتُ عَدۡنٍ۬ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِہِمُ ٱلۡأَنۡہَـٰرُ يُحَلَّوۡنَ فِيہَا مِنۡ أَسَاوِرَ مِن ذَهَبٍ۬ وَيَلۡبَسُونَ ثِيَابًا خُضۡرً۬ا مِّن سُندُسٍ۬ وَإِسۡتَبۡرَقٍ۬ مُّتَّكِـِٔينَ فِيہَا عَلَى ٱلۡأَرَآٮِٕكِ‌ۚ نِعۡمَ ٱلثَّوَابُ وَحَسُنَتۡ مُرۡتَفَقً۬ا

Verily, We have prepared for the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.), a Fire whose walls will be surrounding them. And if they ask for help (relief, water, etc.) they will be granted water like boiling oil, that will scald their faces. Terrible the drink, and an evil Murtafaqa (dwelling, resting place, etc.)! Verily! As for those who believe and do righteous deeds, certainly! We shall not suffer to be lost the reward of anyone who does his (righteous) deeds in the most perfect manner. These! For them will be ‘Adn (Eden) Paradise (everlasting Gardens); wherein rivers flow underneath them, therein they will be adorned with bracelets of gold, and they will wear green garments of fine and thick silk. They will recline therein on raised thrones. How good is the reward, and what an excellent Murtafaqa (dwelling, resting place, etc.)! [Tafseer As-Sadi]

Read: On Imaan (Faith) and Kufr (disbelief):

http://www.salafipublications.com/sps/sp.cfm?secID=AQD&subsecID=AQD13&loadpage=displaysubsection.cfm

Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah [may Allaah have mercy upon him] stated about those Christians who deviated from the path of Messiah [peace be upon him] and fell into disbelief: Then when Allaah [The Exalted] sent Muhammad [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him], they disbelieved in him, so their disbelief and misguidance occurred in two ways- substitution of the religion of the first Messenger (i.e. the Messiah) and belied the second Messenger (i.e. Muhammad), just as the Jews substituted the rulings of the Torah before the Messiah was sent and then belied him. The Christians’ denial of Muhammad’s Messengership is a well-known belief of theirs to every Muslim, which is similar to the Jews’ disbelief in the Messiah. The Christians emphasise the disbelief of the Jews greater than what the Jews deserve, because the Jews claimed that the Messiah was a magician and a liar; rather they said that he is an illegitimate child, as Allaah informed us about them: [وَقَوۡلِهِمۡ عَلَىٰ مَرۡيَمَ بُہۡتَـٰنًا عَظِيمً۬ا – And their speech against Maryam (Mary)- a grave false charge (that she has committed illegal sexual intercourse]. [Surah An-Nisaa. Aayah 156]; but the Christians claimed that the Messiah is Allaah, therefore the trial between them and the Jews regarding the Messiah involved a lot of contradictions, misguidance at similar levels and confrontation, and this is why both nations rebuked one another with something more than what each of them deserved, just as Allaah said:

وَقَالَتِ ٱلۡيَهُودُ لَيۡسَتِ ٱلنَّصَـٰرَىٰ عَلَىٰ شَىۡءٍ۬ وَقَالَتِ ٱلنَّصَـٰرَىٰ لَيۡسَتِ ٱلۡيَهُودُ عَلَىٰ شَىۡءٍ۬ وَهُمۡ يَتۡلُونَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ‌ۗ كَذَٲلِكَ قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ مِثۡلَ قَوۡلِهِمۡ‌ۚ فَٱللَّهُ يَحۡكُمُ بَيۡنَهُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ فِيمَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخۡتَلِفُونَ

The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing; and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing; though they both recite the Scripture. Like unto their word, said (the pagans) who know not. Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they have been differing. [Surah Al-Baqarah. Aayah 113]

Muhammad Bin Abee Muhammad the protege of Zaid Bin Thaabit reported from Ikrimah or Saeed Bin Jubayr, who reported from Ibn Abbaas that when the Christian delegation of Najraan came to Allaah’s Messenger, the Rabbis came and argued with them in the presence of the Messenger; so Rabee Bin Hurmilah said, “You are upon nothing” and thus he disbelieved in Eesaa and all the Injeel. Then a man from the people of Najraan said to the Jews, “You are upon nothing”, and thus he wilfully denied Musa’s [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] Prophethood and disbelieved in the Torah, so Allaah revealed:

وَقَالَتِ ٱلۡيَهُودُ لَيۡسَتِ ٱلنَّصَـٰرَىٰ عَلَىٰ شَىۡءٍ۬ وَقَالَتِ ٱلنَّصَـٰرَىٰ لَيۡسَتِ ٱلۡيَهُودُ عَلَىٰ شَىۡءٍ۬ وَهُمۡ يَتۡلُونَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ‌ۗ

The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing; and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing; though they both recite the Scripture. [Surah Al-Baqarah. Aayah 113]

So each of them recited the affirmation of what they reject in their book- meaning, the Jews disbelieved in Eesaa whilst they had the Torah in which Allaah established the evidence against them through Musa that they should believe in Eesaa and the Injeel, and Eesaa confirmed Musa’s Messengership and what he came with. So, each one disbelieved in what was in the possession of the other. [Ibn Abee Haatim. 1/339]

[وَقَالَتِ ٱلۡيَهُودُ لَيۡسَتِ ٱلنَّصَـٰرَىٰ عَلَىٰ شَىۡءٍ۬ – The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing]: Qataadah said regarding this Aayah, “Certainly, the early Christians were upon something, but they innovated and split”.

[وَقَالَتِ ٱلنَّصَـٰرَىٰ لَيۡسَتِ ٱلۡيَهُودُ عَلَىٰ شَىۡءٍ۬ – and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing]: Qataadah said regarding this Aayah, “Certainly, the early Jews were upon something, but they innovated and split”. The Jews belied the religion of the Christians and said that the Christians were upon nothing; and the Christians denied everything through which the Jews were distinguished from them, even the laws of the Torah which the Messiah did not abrogate; rather he commanded them to act upon it. As for the Jews, they denied many of things through which others were distinguished from them, until they denied the truth brought by Eesaa.

So, even though the Christians – due to that which they innovated of exaggeration and misguidance – went into extremes in excommunicating the Jews and showed them enmity beyond what is obligated, however there is no doubt that the Jews disbelieved when they belied the Messiah, just as Allaah [The Exalted] said to the Messiah [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him]: [إِنِّى مُتَوَفِّيكَ وَرَافِعُكَ إِلَىَّ وَمُطَهِّرُكَ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ ڪَفَرُواْ وَجَاعِلُ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوكَ فَوۡقَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ – I will take you and raise you to Myself and clear you [of the forged statement that ‘Iesa (Jesus) is Allah’s son] of those who disbelieve, and I will make those who follow you (Monotheists, who worship none but Allah) superior to those who disbelieve [in the Oneness of Allah, or disbelieve in some of His Messengers, e.g. Muhammad, ‘Iesa (Jesus), Musa (Moses), etc., or in His Holy Books, e.g. the Taurat (Torah), the Injeel (Gospel), the Qur’an] till the Day of Resurrection. [Surah Aal Imraan. Aayah 55]

And Allaah [The Exalted] said:

قَالَ عِيسَى ٱبۡنُ مَرۡيَمَ لِلۡحَوَارِيِّـۧنَ مَنۡ أَنصَارِىٓ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ‌ۖ قَالَ ٱلۡحَوَارِيُّونَ نَحۡنُ أَنصَارُ ٱللَّهِ‌ۖ فَـَٔامَنَت طَّآٮِٕفَةٌ۬ مِّنۢ بَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ وَكَفَرَت طَّآٮِٕفَةٌ۬‌ۖ فَأَيَّدۡنَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ عَلَىٰ عَدُوِّهِمۡ فَأَصۡبَحُواْ ظَـٰهِرِينَ

Eesaa the son of Maryam said to Al-Hawariun (the disciples): “Who are my helpers (in the Cause) of Allah?” Al-Hawarieen (the disciples) said: “We are Allah’s helpers” (i.e. we will strive in His Cause!). Then a group of the Children of Israel believed and a group disbelieved. So We gave power to those who believed against their enemies, and they became the uppermost. [Surah As-Saff. Aayah 14]

The disbelief of the Christians – due to their denial of Muhammad’s Messengership and – is greater than the disbelief of the Jews due to their denial of the Messiah’s Messengership, because indeed the Messiah only abrogated a little from the Torah and all the laws and acts of worship ordained for him could be traced back to the Torah; however the majority of the beliefs and practices of the Christians were innovated after the departure of the Messiah. That which is found in the Jews’ denial of the Messiah by opposing Allaah’s Sharee’ah is not the same as the Christians’ denial of Muhammad, who brought an independent book from Allaah, because nothing in the laws of the Qur’aan was ordained based on the law of another Messenger. Allaah [The Exalted] said:

[أَوَلَمۡ يَكۡفِهِمۡ أَنَّآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبَ يُتۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡهِمۡ‌ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَرَحۡمَةً۬ وَذِڪۡرَىٰ لِقَوۡمٍ۬ يُؤۡمِنُونَ – Is it not sufficient for them that We have sent down to you the Book (the Qur’an) which is recited to them? Verily, herein is mercy and a reminder (or an admonition) for a people who believe]. [Surah Al-Ankabut. Aayah 51]

The Qur’aan is an independent book like the Torah of Musa, even though the Qur’aan is greater than it. And this is why the Christian scholars made a connection between Musa and Muhammad, just as when An-Najaashee [may Allaah have mercy upon him]- the Ethiopian king of the Christians- heard the Qur’an, he said, “Indeed, this and what Musa brought came from the same source”.

Also, when Waqarah bin Nawfil [may Allaah have mercy upon him] – who was one of Christian Arab scholars- heard the statement of the Prophet, he said, “Indeed, the Naamoos [i.e. Jibreel] who came to you was sent to Musa. I wish that I were young till when your people expel you”. Allaah’s Messenger asked, “Will these people drive me out?” Waraqah said, “Yes, because nobody brought the like of what you have brought, but was treated with hostility. If I were to remain alive till your day (when you start calling to Islaam), then I would support you strongly”. [Bukhaari]

And this is why Allaah mentioned the Torah and the Qur’aan together in His statement:

فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُمُ ٱلۡحَقُّ مِنۡ عِندِنَا قَالُواْ لَوۡلَآ أُوتِىَ مِثۡلَ مَآ أُوتِىَ مُوسَىٰٓ‌ۚ أَوَلَمۡ يَڪۡفُرُواْ بِمَآ أُوتِىَ مُوسَىٰ مِن قَبۡلُ‌ۖ قَالُواْ سِحۡرَانِ تَظَـٰهَرَا وَقَالُوٓاْ إِنَّا بِكُلٍّ۬ كَـٰفِرُونَ
قُلۡ فَأۡتُواْ بِكِتَـٰبٍ۬ مِّنۡ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ هُوَ أَهۡدَىٰ مِنۡہُمَآ أَتَّبِعۡهُ إِن ڪُنتُمۡ صَـٰدِقِينَ

But when the truth (i.e. Muhammad with his Message) has come to them from Us, they say: “Why is he not given the like of what was given to Musa (Moses)? Did they not disbelieve in that which was given to Musa (Moses) of old? They say: “Two kinds of magic [the Taurat (Torah) and the Qur’an] each helping the other!” And they say: “Verily! In both we are disbelievers.” Say (to them, O Muhammad): “Then bring a Book from Allah, which is a better guide than these two [the Taurat (Torah) and the Qur’an], that I may follow it, if you are truthful.” [Surah Al-Qasas. Aayaat 48-49]

Allaah did not revealed books that were a better guide than the Tawraat and the Qur’aan. Then Allaah said:

فَإِن لَّمۡ يَسۡتَجِيبُواْ لَكَ فَٱعۡلَمۡ أَنَّمَا يَتَّبِعُونَ أَهۡوَآءَهُمۡ‌ۚ وَمَنۡ أَضَلُّ مِمَّنِ ٱتَّبَعَ هَوَٮٰهُ بِغَيۡرِ هُدً۬ى مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَہۡدِى ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ

But if they answer you not (i.e. do not believe in your doctrine of Islamic Monotheism, nor follow you), then know that they only follow their own lusts. And who is more astray than one who follows his own lusts, without guidance from Allah? Verily! Allah guides not the people who are Zalimun (wrong-doers, disobedient to Allah, and polytheists). [Surah Al-Qasas. Aayah 50] [An Excerpt from Al-Jawaabus Saheeh Liman Baddala Deenul Maseeh. 1/26-30]

Abu Huraira [may Allaah be pleased with him] narrated that Allaah’s Messenger [peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “By the one in whose hand is the soul (or life) of Muhammad, there is none from this nation of Jews and Christians who hears of me and then dies, whilst not believing in what I brought (i.e. the final message from Allaah), except that he will be an inhabitant of Hellfire”. [SÌ£ahÌ£eeh Muslim. Hadeeth 153]

The Tremendous Effects of Tawheed at The Time of Departure From This World

The Tremendous Effects of Tawheed at The Time of Departure From This World

The True Reality of This Worldly Life!
https://salaficentre.com/2022/09/09/the-true-reality-of-this-worldly-life/

 

Finally, the above does not negate living with non-Muslims with fine conduct and fulfilling covenants, so must read following articles:

The Life of the Muhammad in Madinah: Treaties, Conquests and his Death
https://abukhadeejah.com/the-life-of-the-muhammad-in-madinah-treaties-conquests-and-his-death/

Living With Non-Muslims In The West: With Fine Conduct
https://abukhadeejah.com/living-with-non-muslims-in-the-west-with-fine-conduct/

Alliance with the non-Muslims is of two types – misunderstanding this affair leads people astray: –
https://abukhadeejah.com/having-alliance-with-the-non-muslims-is-of-two-types-misunderstanding-this-affair-leads-people-astray/

Are Treaties With The Jews, the State of ‘Israel’ and other Non-Muslims Permitted? Is it Allegiance? Is it Apostasy?
https://abukhadeejah.com/treaties-with-the-non-muslims-do-they-necessitate-allegiance/


[Ref 1: An Excerpt from ‘As-Sawaa’iq Al-Mursalah Alal Jahmiyyah Wal Mu’attilah’ – Vol 3. page 927]

[Ref 2: Excerpt from ‘Mu’jam Al-Manaahee Lil Laf’dhiyyah’ page 34]

[Ref 3: Excerpt from Mu’jam Al-Manaahee Lil Lafdhiyyah’ page 10]

[Ref 4: Excerpt from ‘Al-Haqeeqatus Shar’iyyah Fee Tafseeril Qur’aan Al-A’dheem Was-Sunnatin Nabawiyyah’ page 17]

[Ref 5: An Excerpt from ‘Mu’jam Al-Manaahiy Lil-Laf’dhiyyah’. pages 430-431]

[Ref 6: An-Nahjul Aqwaa. Introduction by Al-Allaamah Saaleh Al-Fawzaan and Al-Allaamah Abdul Azeez Aala Shaikh. page: 126]

[Ref 7: An-Nahjul Aqwaa. Introduction by Al-Allaamah Saaleh Al-Fawzaan and Al-Allaamah Abdul Azeez Aala Shaikh. Page: 127]

[Ref 8: An-Nahjul Aqwaa. Introduction by Al-Allaamah Saaleh Al-Fawzaan and Al-Allaamah Abdul Azeez Aala Shaikh: Page: 127]

[Ref 9: Naseehat Ahl- Eeman Fee Radd Alaa Mantiq Al Yunaan’ page 157]

[Ref 10: Naseehat Ahl Eemaan Fee Radd alaa Mantiq al Yunaan. page:157]

[Ref 11: Sharh Tajreed At-Tawheed Al-Mufeed: cassette 1]

 

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